A freight claim is equal to or more than the value of the goods damaged or lost.
Shipping and freight is an industry fraught with danger and open seas (literally) and the industry of course does its best to deliver the cargo to the receivers in good condition.
However, there are always cases where cargo is either exposed to damage or gets damaged.
In such cases where cargo is damaged, the party whose cargo is damaged will file a freight claim against the party that caused the damage.
For example, if a packing warehouse packed the cargo incorrectly which caused the cargo to be damaged, then the shipper can place a freight claim against the warehouse.